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Healthy Gross Domestic Product (HGDP) Regressed from Life Expectancy: Novel Economic Criterion of Social Development

Kai Huang, Ji-Ming Chen
Author Affiliation(s)
The International School, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang, 330013, China (Kai Huang); China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, 266032, China (Ji-Ming Chen)
Corresponding Author(s)
Ji-Ming Chen (E-mail:
Subject Areas
Demography; Economics; Political Science; Public Health; Sociology

Life expectancy (LE) is pertinent to the core interests of humans because health and life are the most precious wealth of humans. LE is determined by multiple social aspects including economy, safety, health, environment, education, innovation, human behaviors, and propaganda. Therefore, taking LE as a social development criterion is in line with the core interests of humans and facilitates harmonious development of multiple social aspects. In this sense, LE is superior to gross domestic product (GDP) to be taken as a social development criterion, as the GDP-based criterion may ignore safety, health, environmental protection, social equality and justice. However, because LE is not an economic indicator and is not directly corresponding to GDP, LE is unsuitable to replace GDP in the economic field as a social development criterion. In this report, healthy GDP (HGDP) per capita is defined as the GDP per capita regressed according to the exponential relationship between LE and GDP per capita using the independent variable of LE, and HGDP is defined as the product of population and HGP per capita, and relative economic efficiency (REE) is defined as the ratio of HGDP versus GDP. Taking HGDP or HGDP per capita as a social development criterion is in line with the core interests of humans, and facilitates harmonious development of multiple social aspects. Therefore, HGDP is suitable to replace GDP in the economic field as a social development criterion. HGDP and REE are easy to be estimated, and can influence macroeconomic and microeconomic decisions. We also discuss the relationship between HGDP and gross national income, human development index, and green GDP, and elucidate that, when we take HGDP as a criterion of social development of a region, we should not only analyze whether its HGDP has increased, but also analyze the major issues by which humans in that region have been affected in the past.

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  • Comments #1      2017-09-16 22:15:12    
    This paper was originally received on 05-03-2017, and accepted on 06-03-2017. Its preprint abstract was originally published on 06-03-2017, and its full-text preprint was originally published on 08-03-2017. Unfortunately, this paper was deleted by a hacking, and now it is under publication again, and we are increasing the security level of this journal website.

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