The International School, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang, 330013, China (Kai Huang); China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, 266032, China (Ji-Ming Chen)
Life expectancy (LE) is pertinent to the core interests of the people because health and life are our most precious wealth. LE is determined by multiple social aspects including economy, safety, health, environment, education, innovation, human behaviors, and propaganda. Therefore, taking LE as a social development criterion is in line with the core interests of the people, provides a pivotal basis of health for people to engage in all careers, and facilitates harmonious development of multiple social aspects. In this sense, LE is superior to gross domestic product (GDP) to be taken as a social development criterion, as the GDP-based criterion may ignore safety, health, environmental protection, social equality and justice. However, because LE is not an economic indicator, and the economic value of LE increase is usually unintelligible, LE is unsuitable to replace GDP in the economic respect as a social development criterion. In this report, healthy GDP (HGDP) per capita is defined as the GDP per capita regressed according to the exponential relationship between LE and GDP per capita using the independent variable of LE, and HGDP is defined as the product of population and HGP per capita, and relative economic efficiency (REE) is defined as the ratio of HGDP versus GDP. Taking HGDP or HGDP per capita as a social development criterion is in line with the core interests of the people, provides a pivotal basis of health for people to engage in all careers, and facilitates harmonious development of multiple social aspects. Therefore, HGDP is suitable to replace GDP in the economic respect as a social development criterion. HGDP and REE are easy to be estimated, and can influence macroeconomic and microeconomic decisions. We also discuss the relationship between HGDP and gross national income, human development index, and green GDP, and elucidate that, when we take HGDP as a criterion of social development of a region, we should not only analyze whether its HGDP has increased, but also analyze what the people in that region have been affected by the past and have done for the future.